Skip to main content

Program National Recording Preservation Board

Audio Preservation Bibliography

Published articles on a variety of facets of sound preservation, cataloging, and standardization, among other topics, categorized by discipline and area of study.

General Audio Preservation

  • Association of Research Libraries. Proceedings from Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections, 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/index External.
    • Proceedings from Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections contains well-rounded advice for all sound archives. Informative papers outline how to survey a collection, recognize formats, and contract with vendors. The guidelines are balanced with presentations on the progress of the "Save Our Sounds" project and the activities of other institutions. Individual chapters from this publication are listed under their relevant headings.
  • Audio Engineering Society. AES17-1998 (r. 2009): AES Standard Method for Digital Audio Engineering—Measurement of Digital Audio Equipment (Revision of AES17-1991). New York: Audio Engineering Society, 2009. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/search.cfm?docID=21 External
  • Audio Engineering Society. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, July/August 2001. Supplementary journal material. (Supplement devoted to archiving, restoration, and digital libraries.)
    • Carrier degradation, metadata, information retrieval, mass storage, restoration, and data migration are introduced and explained in this AES supplement. Articles by Elizabeth Cohen, Richard Hess, Mickey Hart, Henry Gladney, and James Fleming are featured.
  • Bertram, H. Neal and Edward F. Cuddihy. "Kinetics of the Humid Aging of Magnetic Recording Tape." Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Magnetics (Vol. 18, No. 5), September 1982.
    • An early guide for recommended, acceptable, and unacceptable storage conditions for magnetic tape. Bertram and Cuddihy conclude that "the best solution is to understand the various chemical processes in the tape system which lead to degradation, including hydrolysis, so that a reasonable long-term storage environment can be predicted."
  • Bradley, Kevin. "Critical Choices, Critical Decisions: Sound Archiving and Changing Technology." Proceedings of the Pacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures, 2004. http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/1431 External.
    • The report traces format obsolescence and the many technological and paradigmatic shifts in sound archiving. A short history of recording and an explanation of digital preservation also are provided.
  • Brooks, Tim. Survey of Reissues of U.S. Recordings. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, August 2004. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/reports.html External.
    • Proper establishment and management of sound archives, for both institutions and private collectors, are crucial steps for the preservation of historical performances. Brooks stresses that only 14 percent of all copyrighted historical recordings have been reissued, highlighting the need to safeguard and manage these collections.
  • Brothers, Peter. "Basic Inspection Techniques to Sample the Condition of Magnetic Tape." SpecBros., 2006. http://www.specsbros.com/whitepaper.html External.
    • Brothers provides a short checklist of noninvasive activities to determine the condition of magnetic tape. This information is essential to understanding the physical properties of magnetic tape that govern their life expectancy.
  • Bunn, Trey. “Audio Preservation: A Beginner’s Guide.” Digital Traditions. http://www.digitaltraditions.net/html/Resources/AudioPreservationGuide.pdf External
  • Brylawski, Samuel. "Preservation of Digitally Recorded Sound." In Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving. Washington, DC: Council on Library and information Resources and Library of Congress, 2002. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub106/sound.html External.
    • Brylawski emphasizes the importance of a collaborative approach for the preservation of digitally produced recordings.
  • Brylawski, Samuel. "Review of Audio Collection Preservation Trends and Challenges." Paper presented at Association of Research Libraries, Sound Savings Symposium, Austin, TX, July 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/Review_Audio_Collections.shtml External.
    • The preservation of performances and the conservation of original formats are only a few of the crucial activities of sound archives examined in this article from the Sound Savings symposium. Legal and technical collaborative efforts are vital to the preservation of historical recordings.
  • Casey, Mike. FACET: Format Characteristics and Preservation Problems. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2007. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/facet/facet_formats.pdf External (PDF, 5.15 MB).
    • Valuable information for all audio preservation archivists, audio technicians, and other archive professionals is contained in this document. FACET (Field Audio Collection Evaluation Tool) provides format-specific information and associated preservation problems in great detail. High-quality photographs of formats are included.
  • Casey, Mike and Bruce Gordon. "Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation." In Sound Directions: Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2007. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/index.shtml External.
    • Complete and current practices for the preservation of audio in most formats are conveyed in detail in this document funded by the National Endowment for Humanities and created as a joint effort by the Indiana University archives of Traditional Music (ATM) and the Archive of World Music at Harvard University.
  • Cohen, Elizabeth, Virginia Danielson, and Anthony Seeger. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis. Washington DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, 2001. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub96/contents.html External.
    • Divided into three parts, this document clearly states the overdue need for the preservation of, access to, and rights management of audio collections. The three authors combined their talents at this conference to present the results of their survey of ethnographic recordings and to voice their concern for the state of all audio collections.
  • Edmondson, Ray, et. al. (members of AVAPIN). "A Philosophy of Audiovisual Archiving." Paper presented at UNESCO, 2005. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001131/113127eo.pdf External (PDF, 5MB).
    • Edmondson and members of the AudioVisual Archiving Philosophy Interest Network define the professional and ethical identity of audiovisual archivists. By codifying the profession, training and accreditation needs are brought to light.
  • Federal Agencies Guidelines Initiative. Library of Congress, 2009. http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/audio-visual/ External.
    • The Audio-Visual Working Group of the Federal Agencies page states: "The goal for this working group is to identify, establish, and disseminate information about standards and practices for the digital reformatting of audio-visual materials by federal agencies."
  • Fleischauer, Carl. "Audio and Video Preservation Reformatting: A Library of Congress Perspective." Paper presented at the Preservation Conference: Digital Technology vs. Analog Technology, College Park, MD, March 27, 2003.
    • Fleischauer's paper follows the change in formats for archival masters in many major institutions. Media obsolescence, failing carriers, and the need to provide access to historical recordings have accelerated the shift to reformatting as a preservation option.
  • Frost, Hannah. "Surveying Sound Recording Collections." Paper presented at Association of Research Libraries, Sound Savings Symposium, Austin, TX, July 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/Surveying_sound-2.shtml External.
    • Surveys are valuable tools to gather information about collections and the physical conditions of sound recordings and to comprehend the effects of storage environments. A proper survey can provide the data needed to write budgets, action plans, grants, and technological requisitions.
  • Hess, Richard. "Restoration Tips and Notes: Media Formats & Resources," 2010. http://richardhess.com/notes/ External.
    • Hess keeps this informative blog up-to-date with new developments in the field of audio preservation. A full archive of past articles and a navigation bar make this portal user-friendly.
  • Hess, Richard. "Tape Degradation Factors and Predicting Tape Life." Paper presented at the Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA, October 2006. http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=13804 External.
  • Image Permanence Institute. "The Preservation of Magnetic Tape Collections: A Perspective." IPI, 2006.
    http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/shtml_sub/NEHTapeFinalReport.pdf External (PDF, 436 KB).
    • In this report, funded by the NEH, the Image Permanence Institute presents its findings on magnetic tape's longevity, storage, and obsolescence as well as criteria for evaluating the condition of recorded tapes. Procedures for conducting a condition evaluation survey are provided.
  • Indiana University. "Meeting the Challenge of Media Preservation: Strategies and Solutions," 2011.
    http://www.indiana.edu/~medpres/documents/iu_mpi_report_public.pd External (PDF, 12 KB)
  • Indiana University. "Media Preservation: The Media Preservation Initiative at Indiana University Bloomington."
    http://mediapreservation.wordpress.com/ External
  • International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. Ethical Principles for Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA Special Publication No. 6). 2010. http://www.iasa-web.org/ethical-principles External
  • International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects (IASA-TC 04) (Second Edition). 2009.
    http://www.iasa-web.org/tc04/audio-preservation External
  • International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. Safeguarding the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy (IASA-TC 03). August, 2005. http://www.iasa-web.org/tc03/ethics-principles-preservation-strategy External
  • International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, Task Force on Selection. Selection Criteria for the Transfer for Preservation Purposes of Analogue and Digital Audio Content to Data Formats. International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, 2004.
    • The technical aspects of sound collections are defined in this IASA pamphlet to help archivists prioritize their collections for digitization. Considerations for broadcast and research archives are explained as well as the criteria used by national archives.
  • International Association of Sound Archives. The Safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy. International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, December 2005. http://www.iasa-web.org/downloads/publications/TC03_English.pdf External (PDF, 125 KB).
    • The IASA Technical Committee addresses the ethical consequences of preserving sound recordings within the framework of today's technology. The importance of cooperation and the need for keeping employees current in the field are emphasized.
  • International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects: Standards, Recommended Practices, and Strategies, second edition. Auckland Park, South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, IASA-TC04, 2009. http://www.iasa-web.org/audio-preservation-tc04 External.
    • This is an essential book for all sound archives planning a digitization project. The manual has information for preservation managers, reformatting technicians, and others involved with the process. Standards are clearly stated and explained.
  • Library of Congress. A Bibliographic Framework for the Digital Age. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, October 31, 2011. http://0-www.loc.gov.oasys.lib.oxy.edu/marc/transition/news/framework-103111.html
  • Library of Congress. Cylinder, Disc & Tape Care in a Nutshell.www.loc.gov/preservation/care/record.html
  • Linehan, Andy, ed. Aural History: Essays on Recorded Sound. London: British Library, 2001.
    • The proceedings from the 32nd International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives conference, held jointly with the Association of Recorded Sound Collections, cover reports on the British National Sound Archives and The Century Speaks, a BBC Oral History project. Papers on forensic evidence in recordings and natural sounds are also included.
  • Marcum, Deanna. Transforming Our Bibliographic Framework: A Statement from the Library of Congress. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, May 13, 2011. www.loc.gov/marc/transition/news/framework-051311.html
  • Nelson-Strauss, Brenda. "Preservation Policies and Priorities for Recorded Sound Collections." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association (Vol. 48, No. 2), 1991.
    • If a preservation plan for sound collections is to be created, priorities must be established. Nelson-Strauss guides preservation administrators through the process will well-defined priorities.
  • Payton, Christopher Ann. “Preservation Re-Recording of Audio Recordings in Archives: Problems, Priorities, Technologies, and Recommendations.” The American Archivist 61: 1 (Spring 1998): 188-219.
  • PRESTO – Preservation Technologies for European Broadcast Archives. "Key Links Systems Specification Document," June 2001. http://presto.joanneum.at/Public/D32.pdf External (PDF, 1 MB).
    • The Preservation Technologies for European Broadcast Archives web portal provides documents in a straightforward manner for those who are familiar with the concepts but lack technical expertise.
  • Public Trust at Risk: The Heritage Health Index Report on the State of America’s Collections. Washington, DC: Heritage Preservation, Inc., 2005. http://www.heritagepreservation.org/HHI/HHIfull.pdf. External
  • Rumsey, Francis, and Tim McCormick. Sound and Recording: An Introduction. Oxford: Focal, 2002.
  • Schüller, Dietrich. "Ethics of Preservation, Restoration, and Reissue of Historical Sound Recordings," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society (Vol. 39, No. 12), December 1991.
  • Schüller, Dietrich. "Preserving the Facts for the Future: Principles and Practices for the Transfer of Analog Audio Documents into the Digital Domain," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society (Vol. 49, Nos. 7/8), July/August 2001.
    • Schüller's articles outline and emphasize special needs with regard to the transfer of analog sound collections to the digital domain. His advice applies to archivists and engineers alike.
  • Seeger, Anthony, and Shubha Chaudhuri. "Archives for the Future: Global Perspectives for the 21st Century." India: Seagull, 2001. http://www.seagullindia.com/archive/download.html External.
    • These proceedings of a 2001 Ford Foundation–supported meeting, organized by the Archives and Research Centre for Ethnomusicology, are a unique mix addressing the challenges, objectives, ethics, and restoration of collections from around the world. Mock debates at the end of the proceedings reveal the different needs of archivists, administrators, artists, and researchers.
  • Smith, Abby, David Randal Allen, and Karen Allen. Survey of the State of Audio Collections in Academic Libraries. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources, August 2004. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub128/contents.html External.
    • This survey of academic collections has valuable information for decision makers planning for the preservation of audio collections. As the authors state, "the survey was designed to raise awareness within the larger research and funding communities of the value of audio collections and to encourage institutions with important audio holdings to seek support for their collections."
  • Smith, Abby. Why Digitize? Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, February 1999. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub80-smith/pub80.html External.
  • TAPE: Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe, 2010. http://www.tape-online.net/ External.
    • TAPE's website provides a portal for all audiovisual archivists. TAPE publications include guidelines for preservation of research collections and workflows, while the website's "links to literature" connect users to information about formats, preservation management, ethics, and storage of digital files.
  • Teruggi, Daniel. "Can We Save Our Audio-Visual Heritage?" Ariadne, April 2004. http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue39/teruggi/ External.
  • Wilson, Andrew, Richard Wright, Malcolm Polfreman, Sheila Tanner, and Emma Beer. "Arts and Humanities Data Service Digital Moving Images and Sound (AHDS) Archiving Study." AHDS, 2007. http://www.ahds.ac.uk/about/projects/archiving-studies/moving-images-sound-archiving-final.pdf External (PDF, 487 KB).
    • Gives an overview of current research, initiatives, and issues concerning the preservation of digital sound. Serving as a guide to file formats, metadata standards, and organizational models for recorded sound, this report includes references and useful papers.
  • Wright, Richard. "Annual Report on Preservation for European Audiovisual Collections 2008." PrestoSpace.
    • This annual report shows the status of audiovisual collections across the EC, relays current practices, and has predictions for life after PrestoSpace.
  • Wright, Richard, and Adrian Williams. "Archive Preservation and Exploitation Requirements." PRESTO – Preservation Technologies for European Archives, 2001.
    • A recent survey revealed that European broadcast archives contained 20 million hours of audio. PRESTO uses the results of this survey to develop cost-effective strategies for the preservation of recordings.
  • Wright, Richard. "The Broadcast Wave Format," IASA Journal (Vol. 17), June 2001.
    • The Broadcast Wave Format is emerging as the best standard for archiving digital recordings. This is an introduction to the format.
  • Zwaneveld, E. H. Archivists Need Input in Audio-Video Standards. New York: Electronic Engineering Times, 2000.
  • Zwaneveld, E.H. "Preservation Reformatting??? Audiovisual Standards and Beyond." Paper presented at U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 18th Annual Preservation Conference, Washington, DC, March 27, 2003. http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conferences/papers-2003/zwaneveld.html External.
    • Zwanevald gives his perspective on standards for audio and video material. All aspects and applications are explored.

Sound Archives: Organization and Management

  • Auffret, Gwendal, and Yannick Prie. “Managing Full-Indexed Documents: A New Perspective for the Humanities.” Computers and the Humanities. Denmark: Kluwer, 1999, pp. 314-344. http://0-www.jstor.org.oasys.lib.oxy.edu/stable/30200516 External
  • Bucknum, Mary Russell. "Sound Archives in the United States." Fontes Artis Musica (Vol. 48, No. 4), October-December 2001: 381-390.
    • Bucknum provides an excellent overview and introduction to the inner workings of sound archives. The topics are presented in a clear concise form and cover collection development, cataloging, access, preservation and the storage of files.
  • Das, Mrinmay Kumar. “Electronic Media Libraries: Organization, Management and Preservation of Audio-Visual Materials: A Study.” Germany: LAP Lambert, 2012.
  • Farrington, Jim. "Preventive Maintenance for Audio Discs and Tapes." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association (Vol. 48, No. 2), December 1991: 437-445.
  • Farrington, Jim. Audio and Video Equipment Basics for Libraries.Lanham, MD: Scarecow Press, 2006.
  • Griscom, Richard ed. Music Librarianship at the Turn of the Century. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2000.
  • Harrison, H.P. (ed). Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader. Paris: General Information Programme and United Nations International Scientific Information System, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm External.
    • All facets of the management of AV archives are described from legal issues, ethical issues, collection development and management, oral history, documentation, storage, handling, technical preservation, equipment, disaster recovery to the education of AV professionals. Each chapter is written by a different subject specialist. The articles on education are listed in the appropriate section ofthis bibliography.
  • Lance, David ed. Sound Archives: A Guide to Their Establishment and Development. International Association of Sound Archives, 1983.
    • The organization of sound archives is covered from the planning stages to providing access to the public. Expert authors provide useful forms from their archives in each chapter of this IASA publication.
  • Mariner, Matthew. Managing Digital Audiovisual Resources: A Practical Guide for Librarians. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2014.
  • Schüller, Dietrich. "Sound Recordings: Problems of Preservation." In Managing Preservation for Libraries and Archives: Current Practices and Future Development , edited by John Feather. London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2004.
    • Schüller's chapter is a great introduction to the field for preservation administrators and managers. Schüller takes the reader through a wide array of topics ranging from the differences in mechanical carriers to Digital Mass Storage Systems.
  • Seward, Ronda L. “Descriptive Challenges of Audio Archiving,” Recorded Sound (Spring 2012): 1-2.
  • Society for Ethnomusicology. A Manual for Documentation Fieldwork & Preservation for Ethnomusicologists. Bloomington, IN: Society for Ethnomusicology, Inc., 1994.
    • This manual of checklists and procedures provides a framework for ethnomusicologists to manage their projects from the planning stages to the deposit of recordings in archives. Forms are provided to document and to cover the legal and ethical aspects of projects.

Material Science and Media Stability

  • Adelstein, Peter Z. "International Standards on Preservation of Information Recording Materials." JTS 2004 Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage-–Transition and Access. Toronto: Joint Technical Symposium, Unesco, 2004.
  • Boston, George. Survey of Endangered Audiovisual Carriers: Survey conducted by the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, with assistance from the International Council of Archives on behalf of the Information Society Division. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2003. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/13437/10680465001Survey_Report.pdf/Survey%2BReport.pdf External (PDF, 166 KB).
  • Bradley, Kevin. Risks Associated with the Use of Recordable CDs and DVDs as Reliable Storage Media in Archival Collections – Strategies and Alternatives. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/22734/11571181531CD_DVD_for_UNESCO_final__2006.pdf/CD%2BDVD%2Bfor%2BUNESCO%2Bfinal%2B%2B2006.pdf External (PDF, 187 KB).
  • Bradshaw R., and C. Schroeder. "Fifty Years of IBM Innovation with Information on Magnetic Tape." IBM Journal of Research and Development, July 2003.
  • Byers, Fred R. "Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs." Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and National Institute of Standards and Technology, October 2003.
    http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub121/contents.html External.
  • Hinterhofer, Otto, Konrad Binder, Leopold Krenner and Dietrich Schüller. "The Chemical Deterioration of Magnetic Tape and its Assessment by Physical and Chemical Testing". The Proceedings of AES 104th Convention. AES. New York: Audio Engineering Society, May 1998.
  • Iraci, Joe. "The Relative Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats." Restaurator: International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material. Munich: K.G. Saur/National Institute of Standards and Technology (Vol. 26, Number 2), June 20, 2005.
    http://www.uni-muenster.de/Forum-Bestandserhaltung/downloads/iraci.pdf External (PDF, 512 KB).
  • Manns, Basil and Chandru J. Shahani. Longevity of CD Media Research at the Library of Congress.
    Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, 2003. www.loc.gov/preservation/resources/rt/studyofCDlongevity.pdf (PDF, 357 KB).
  • Media Stability Studies. "Resources for Archivists, Records Managers, and Individuals Responsible for Storing Information," National Media Lab, 2004.
  • National Library of Australia. "Australian Network for Information on Cellulose Acetatet," 2002. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/11779/20040524-0000/www.nla.gov.au/ntwkpubs/gw/60/p04a01.html Externala
  • Pickett, A. G. and M.M. Lemcoe. "Preservation and Storage of Sound Recordings." Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, 1959. Reprint, Association of Recorded Sound Collections, 1994.
  • Porck, Henk J. and Rene Teygeler. "Preservation Science Survey: An Overview of Recent Developments in Research on the Conservation of Selected Analog Library and Archival Materials." Council on Library and Information Resources, December 2000.
  • Vos, Martin, Gary Ashton, John Van Bogart and Ron Ensminger, eds. "Heat & Moisture Diffusion in Magnetic Tape Packs." National Media Labs, March 1994.
  • Van Bogart, J. "Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling: A Guide for Libraries and Archives." National Media Laboratory and Council on Library and Information Resources, 1995. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub54/index.html External.

Collection Assessment Tools for Audio Collections

Education and Training

  • Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC). Education and Training in Audiovisual Archiving and Preservation, 2004. http://www.arsc-audio.org/etresources.html External.
  • Berry, David M. Understanding Digital Humanities. New York: Palgrave, 2012.
  • Gracy, Karen and Jean Ann Croft. "Quo Vadis, Preservation Education? A Study of Current Trends and Future Needs in Continuing Education Programs." Library Resources and Technical Services (Vol. 51, No. 2), April 2007.
  • Harrison, Helen P. Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader. Paris: UNESCO, March 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm External.
    • Klaue, Wolfgang. "New Media Requires Specialized Archivists." Harrison 13.1
    • Curriculum Development Working Party. "Training Needs of AV Archivists." Harrison 13.2
    • Curriculum Development Working Party. "Organization and Harmonization of Education Programmes." Harrison 13.3
    • Curriculum Development Working Party. "Recommended Standards for Training." Harrison 13.4.
    • Technical Co-ordinating Committee. "Curriculum Development for Archive Technicians." Harrison 13.5.
    • Harrison, Helen P. "Training for AudioVisual Archivists." Harrison 13.6.
  • Kenney, Anne R., and Deirdre C. Stam. The State of Preservation Programs in American College and Research Libraries: Building a Common Understanding and Action Agenda. Council on Library and Information Resources, 2002. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub111/introsum.html External.
  • “Looking at archival sound : Enhancing the listening experience in a spoken word archive” by Annie Murray and Jared Wiercinski. First Monday, vol. 17, no. 4 (2 April 2012). http://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3808/3197 . External
  • Ward, Alan. A Manual of Sound Archive Administration. Surrey, UK: Gower Publishing Co., 1990.

Appraisal, Cataloging and Collection Policies

Technical – Audio Engineering

  • Audio Engineering Society. "The Proceedings of the AES 20th International Conference: Archiving, Restoration and New Methods of Recording, Budapest, Hungary." New York: AES, 2001. http://www.aes.org/publications/conferences/ External.
    • The AES proceedings of their conference devoted to archiving and restoration of audio recordings is crucial for all audio preservation libraries. The topics of carrier degradation, metadata and files, broadcasting systems, mass transfer and restoration are covered in depth.
  • Bradley, Kevin, ed. "IASA TC-04 Second Edition. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects." South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives-IASA Technical Committee 4, 2009.
    • The IASA TC-04 is, perhaps, the one essential book for all sound archives planning a digitization project. This manual has information for preservation managers, reformatting technicians and all others involved with the process. Standards are clearly stated and explained in this volume.
  • Brock-Nannestad, George. More than Sound.Proceedings of the 118th Convention, Barcelona, Spain: May 2005.
  • Stotzer, Sylvain, Ottar Johnsen, Frederic Baptz, and Rolf Ingold. "Groove Extraction of Phonographic Records." In Document Analysis Systems VII: 7th International Workshop, DAS 2006, Nelson, New Zealand, February 13-15, 2006, Proceedings edited by Horst Bunke, A. Lawrence Spitz. New York: Springer, 2006.
  • Copeland, Peter. "Manual of Analogue Audio Restoration Techniques." British Library, 2006. http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/sound/anaudio/analoguesoundrestoration.pdf External (PDF, 2.25 MB).
    • Copeland worked on this manual until his passing in 2006. This work, made freely available by his former employer, the British Library reflects his knowledge as he hoped it would help others in the field.
  • Hans, Nicolas, and Johan de Koster. Taking Care of Tomorrow Before it is Too Late: A Pragmatic Archiving Strategy. Proceedings of the 116th AES Convention, Berlin, Germany, May 2004.
  • Harada, Noboru, Takehire Moriya, and Yutaka, Kamamoto. An Audio Archiving Format Based on MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding. Proceedings of the 121st Convention, San Francisco, CA: October 2006.
  • Hess, Richard L., Tape Degradation Factors and Predicting Tape Life. AES Conference Proceedings, 2007.
  • Katz, Bob. "Mastering Audio: The Art and the Science." Oxford: Focal Press, 2002.
  • Martin, Geoff. "Introduction to Sound Recording." http://www.tonmeister.ca/main/textbook/index.html External.
    • Martin's on-line version allows readers to click on words for a definition of a word or concept. "Introduction to Sound Recording" is a complete text and is updated annually.
  • Moylan, William. Understanding and Crafting the Mix: The Art of Recording. Oxford: Focal Press, 2007.
  • National Recording Preservation Board, Library of Congress. "Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Transferring Analog Discs and Tapes." Council on Library and Information Resources, March 2006. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub137/contents.html External.
  • Pohlmann, Ken C. Principles of Digital Audio, 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.
  • Pohlmann, Ken C. Measurement and Evaluation of Analog-to-Digital Converters used in the Long-Term Preservation of Audio Recordings. Paper written for the roundtable discussion convened by the Library of Congress and Council on Library and Information Resources on behalf of the National Recording Preservation Board, Washington, DC: March 10-11, 2006. http://www.clir.org/activities/details/AD-Converters-Pohlmann.pdf External (PDF, 257 KB).
    • A to D converters are the most important link in the audio reformatting chain. This publication explains attributes required to obtain the best quality when reformatting recordings.
  • Pymm, Bob. Digital Materials in Archives. The Digital Dawn: AV Archiving in Transition, 9th SEAPAVAA Conference & General Assembly, May 2-6, 2005.
  • Slattery, O. , R. Lu., J. Zheng, F.R. Byers and X. Tang. "Stability Comparison of Recordable Optical Discs: A Study of Error Rates in Harsh Conditions." Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology." Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology (Vol. 109, No. 5), 2004.
  • Stotzer, Sylvain, Ottar Johnsen, Frederic Baptz, and Rolf Ingold. "Groove Extraction of Phonographic Records." In Document Analysis Systems VII: 7th International Workshop, DAS 2006, Nelson, New Zealand, February 13-15, 2006, Proceedings edited by Horst Bunke, A. Lawrence Spitz. New York: Springer, 2006.

Preservation of Archival Materials: General texts with chapters on audio Materials

  • Audio Preservation/Restoration, University of Washington. http://guides.lib.washington.edu/AudioPreservation External
  • Bradley, Kevin. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects (IASA-TC04 Second Edition). 2009. http://www.iasa-web.org/audio-preservation-tc04 External
  • Gibson, Gerald D. "Preservation and conservation of sound recordings." In: Henderson, Kathryn Luther, and William T. Henderson. Conserving and preserving materials in non-book formats. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1991, pp. 27-44.
  • Gorman, G.E., and Sydney J. Shep. Preservation Management for Libraries, Archives and Museums. London: Facet Publishing, 2006.
    • Bob Pymm's chapter, Preservation of Audiovisual Media: Traditional to Interactive Formats highlights the distinction between passive preservation (correct storage) and active preservation (digitizing) based on many recent articles. Supported with several pages of references, this chapter provides excellent information for archives planning for the preservation of their audio material.
  • Feather, John. Managing Preservation for Libraries and Archives: Current Practice and Future Developments. Farham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004.
    • Dietrich Schuller's chapter, Sound Recordings Problems of Preservation outlines the history, physical characteristics and problems of cylinders, course groove discs, instantaneous discs, vinyl, magnetic tape and optical discs. Schuller urges: "Audio preservation has become a specialist discipline which is faced with new problems and insights. Readers are, therefore, encouraged to take this chapter just as general introduction and to seek expert advice for their specific preservation problems, especially if unique heritage material has to be safeguarded."
  • Harvey, Ross. Preserving Digital Materials. Munich: K.G. Saur, 2006.
    • The critical "selection for preservation" decision is well covered with many references from preservation initiatives and collaborations. Illustrated with a case study from the National Sound and Film Archive, this volume provides updated information and explores preservation from the extent of the "preservation problems" to solutions.
  • IASA. “Selection for Digitization in National Sound Archives.” http://www.iasa-web.org/task-force/5-selection-digitisation-national-sound-archives External
  • Koch, Lars-Christian, and Stefan Simon. “ILKAR: Integrated Solutions for Preservation, Archiving and Conservation of Cylinders.” IASA Journal 33 (June 2009).
  • LaFrance, Adrienne. “The Library of Congress Wants to Destroy Your Old CDs for Science.” The Atlantic 13 May 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/05/the-library-of-congress-wants-to-destroy-your-old-cds-for-science/370804/ External
  • Miller, Dayton Clarence. The Science of Musical Sounds. New York: Macmillan, 1916.
  • Nichols, Roger. The Roger Nichols Recording Method: A Primer for the 21st Century Audio Engineer. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Music, 2013.
  • Paton, Christopher Ann. “Preservation of Acetate Disc Sound Recording at George State University.” Midwestern Archivist 16: 1 (1991). http://0-www.jstor.org.oasys.lib.oxy.edu/stable/41101786 External
  • Stockinger, Peter, ed. Digital Audiovisual Archives. Indianapolis: Wiley-ISTE, 2012.
  • Wright, Richard. “Preserving Motion Pictures and Sound.” DPC Technology Watch Report March 2012. http://www.google.com/url?url=http://www.dpconline.org/component/docman/doc_download/753-dpctw12-01pdf&rct=j&frm=1&q=&esrc=s&sa=U&ei=y_W6U7WEOZagsATM9oD4BQ&ved=0CBQQFjAA&usg=AFQjCNHD_4xqwmvSG_N4HT8E42zcFHvB5w External

Conference Proceedings (expanded by chapter)

  • Association of Research Libraries. "Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections," 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/index.shtml External.
  • Aubert, M., and R. Billeaud. Image and Sound Archiving and Access, The Challenges of the 3rd Millennium: Proceedings of the Joint Technical Symposium. Centre National de la Cinématographie, Paris, 2000.
  • Audio Engineering Society. "The Proceedings of the AES 20th International Conference: Archiving, Restoration and New Methods of Recording, Budapest, Hungary." New York: AES, 2001. http://www.aes.org/publications/conferences/ External.
    • Schüller, Dietrich. "Life Expectancy Testing of Magnetic Tapes – A Key to a Successful Strategy in Audio and Video Preservation." AES 11–14.
    • Psohlavec, Stanislav. "Practical Experience with Long-Term CD-R Archiving." AES 15–17.
    • Kunej, Drago. "Instability and Vulnerability of CD-R Carriersto Sunlight." AES 18–25.
    • Herla, Siegbert. "Metadata – the Basis of Asset Management." AES 47–54.
    • Petäjä, Markku; Jouni Frilander, Pekka Gronow, Antti Järvinen. "Digital Audio Archiving in Public Broadcasting." AES 71–82.
    • Houpert, Jörg. "Optimized Workstation for the Transfer of Large Collections." AES 120–128.
    • Musialik, Christoph M.; Ulrich Hatje, Jean-Christophe Kummer and Peter Kuhnle. "An Integrated Solution for Digitization, Archiving, and Restoration of Large Audio Collections." AES 129–137.
    • Cavaglieri, Stephano S.; Ottar Johnson, and Frédéric Bapst. "Optimal Retrieval and Storage of Analog Sound Recordings." AES 151–156.
    • Brock-Nannestad, George. "The Attraction of Optical Replay of Mechanical Recordings." AES 157–161.
    • Czyzewski, Andrzej. "The Internet Sound Restoration Service Based on the Perceptual Denoising Method." AES 162–167.
    • Lechleitner, Frans; Bernard Berg, Markus Dorfer and Heinrich Pichler. "Reduction of Modulation Noise in Analog Full Track Recording using Multitrack Replay Techniques." AES 171–174.
    • Audio Engineering Society. "The Proceedings of the AES 26th International Conference: Audio Forensics in the Digital Age," AES, Denver, Colorado, July 7-9, 2005.
    • Audio Engineering Society. "The Proceedings of the AES 25th International Conference: Metadata for Audio, London," AES, June 17-19, 2004.
    • Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts. "A Race Against Time: Preserving Our Audiovisual Media." Philadelphia: CCAHA, November 14, 2005.
  • Harrison, H.P. (ed). "Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader." Paris: UNESCO, March 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm External.
    • Edmondson, Ray. "Nature of the AV Media," Harrison 1.2.
    • Edmondson, Ray. "Worldwide and Paradigm of AV Archiving," Harrison 1.3
    • Klaue, Wolfgang. "Audiovisual Records as Archival Material," Harrison 1.4
    • Curriculum Development Party 1990. "General Principles of Audiovisual Archiving," Harrison 1.5
    • Koch, Grace. "A Typology of Media Archives," Harrison 1.6
    • Edmonndson, Ray et al. "The AV Archive: Definition and Typology," 1.7.
    • Kofler, Birgit. "Legal Issues Facing Audiovisual Archives," Harrison 1.8
    • Pinion, Catherine F. "Legal Issues in AVArchives An Introduction, Harrison 1.9
    • Edmondson, Ray. "Ethics," Harrison 1.12
    • Boston, George. "Ethics and New Technology," Harrison 1.13
    • Schuursma, Rolf. "Approaches to the National Organization of Sound Archives," Harrison 2.1
    • Kula, Sam. "History and Organization of Moving Image Archives," Harrison 2.2
    • Harrison, Helen P. "Records Management in Sound Archives," Harrison 2.3
    • Hartford, Anne. "Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Television Programme Archives," Harrison 2.4
    • Lance, David. "Oral History," Harrison 3.1
    • Mazikana, Peter and William Moss. "Introduction: Oral Tradition and Oral History," Harrison 3.2
    • Harrison, Helen P. "Archival Appraisal," Harrison 4.1
    • Harrison, Helen P.. "Selection and Audiovisual collections," Harrison 4.2
    • McMullen, Mary. "IASA Cataloguing for Audio-Visual Media Cataloging and Documentation Committee Publication Project," Harrison 5.3
    • Harrison, Helen, P. " Intellectual Control, 5.4
    • Harrison, Helen, P. "Towards Standards for AudioVisual Materials," Harrison 5.5
    • Hubert, Rainer. "The Cataloguing of AV-Media," 5.6
    • St. Laurent, Gilles et al. "The Care of Grooved Records," Harrison 7.2
    • Gibson, Gerald D. "Magnetic Tape Deterioration: Recognition, Recovery and Prevention," 7.3
    • Schüller, Dietrich. "Preservation of Audio and Video Material in Tropical countries," Harrison 7.5
    • Schüller, Dietrich. "Data density versus data security: formats suitable for archival purposes," Harrison 7.6
    • Schüller, Dietrich. "Strategies for the Safeguarding of Audio and Video materials in the Long Term," Harrison 7.7
    • Schüller, Dietrich, Lloyd Stickells and William Storm. "Guide to Technical Equipment: Audio Archives," Harrison 8.3
    • Doesburg, Cor L. "Costs of Storage in Sound Archives," Harrison 10.1
    • Gibson, Gerald D. "Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery in AudioVisual Collections," Harrison 12.1
    • Klaue, Wolfgang. "New Media Requires Specialized Archivists," Harrison 13.1
    • Curriculum Development Working Party. "Training Needs of AV Archivists," Harrison 13.2
    • Curriculum Development Working Party. "Organization and Harmonization of Education Programmes," Harrison 13.3
    • Curriculum Development Working Party. "Recommended Standards for Training," Harrison 13.4.
    • Technical Co-ordinating Committee. "Curriculum Development for Archive Technicians," Harrison 13.5.
    • Harrison, Helen P. "Training for AudioVisual Archivists," Harrison 13.6.
  • Neal, James G. Fair Use Testimony at House Copyright Hearing. Address to the US House of Representatives, Washington, DC. 2 April 2014. http://www.librarycopyrightalliance.org/bm~doc/testimony-jim-neal-2apr2014.pdf External
  • Orbanz, Eva. Archiving the Audio-Visual Heritage: A Joint Technical Symposium, May 20–22, 1987.
  • Unlocking Audio: Sharing Experience of Mass Digitization, 2007.
  • Unlocking Audio 2: Connecting with Listeners, 2007. http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/bldept/soundarch/unlockaudio/papers07/unlockingaudio1papers.html External.
  • Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. Prepared under the direction of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, a committee of the American Library Association … [et al]. Eds. Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler. 2nd 1988 revised ed. Chicago: ALA, 1988, p. 677.
  • Association for Recorded Sound Collections. Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings. Eugene, OR: ARSC, 1995, p. 60.
  • Association of Research Librarians. Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries; Center for Social Media, School of Communication, American University; Program on Information Justice and Intellectural Property, Washington College of Law, American University, January 2012. http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/libraries. External
  • Association of Research Libraries; American University, Center for Social Media, and Washington College of Law Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property. Fair Use Challenges in Academic and Research Libraries. 2010. http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/sites/default/files/documents/pages/arl_csm_fairusereport-final.pdf External
  • Aufderheide, Patricia, and Peter Jaszi. Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance in Copyright. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.
  • Authors Guild v. HathiTrust Copyright Case decision (2012) http://www.arl.org/storage/documents/publications/agvhathitrust-decision-jun2014.pdf External
  • Besek, June M. Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, December 2005. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub135/contents.html. External
  • Besek, June M. Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and andDissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, March 2009. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub144abst.html External.
  • Brooks, Tim. “Copyright and Historical Sound Recordings: Recent Efforts to Change U.S. Law.” Notes (2009): 464-473.
  • Gowers, Andrew. Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. Norwich, England: HMSO, 2006.
  • Hirtle, Peter. “Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States.” Ithaca, NY: Cornell Copyright Center, January 2012. http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm External
  • Holwerda, Thom. “US Library of Congress: Copyright Is Destroying Historic Audio.” OS News 8 October 2010. http://www.osnews.com/story/23888/US_Library_of_Congress_Copyright_Is_Destroying_Historic_Audio External
  • Jaszi, Peter and Nick Lewis. Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, December 2005. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub146abst.html External.
    • Prepared by the Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Washington College of Law, American University Under the supervision of Peter Jaszi with the assistance of Nick Lewis.
  • Loughney, Patrick L. “Library of Congress Comments in Response to: Copyright Office Notice of Inquiry Pertaining to Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972” [Docket No. 2010-4]. Washington, DC: US Copyright Office, January 31, 2011. http://0-.oasys.lib.oxy.edu www.copyright.gov/docs/sound/comments/initial/20110131-Patrick-Loughney-Library-of-Congress.pdf
  • Music Library Association. MLA: Copyright for Music Librarians. http://copyright.musiclibraryassoc.org/ External.
    • This resource from the Music Library Association outlines general copyright provisions, preservation, performance rights, as well as issues for composers and authors for AV materials in music libraries.
  • Pallante, Maria A. “Priorities and Special Projects of the United States Copyright Office, October 2011–October 2013.” Washington, DC: US Copyright Office, 2011. www.copyright.gov/docs/priorities.pdf
  • Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Washington College of Law, American University. Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. Prepared under the supervision of Peter Jaszi with the assistance of Nick Lewis. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, 2009.
  • Public Domain Sherpa (website) http://www.publicdomainsherpa.com/ External
  • Schüller, Dietrich. Audio and Video Carriers: Recording Principles, Storage and Handling, Maintenance of Equipment, Format and Equipment Obsolescence. Netherlands: Culture 2000, Feb. 2008. http://www.tape-online.net/docs/audio_and_video_carriers.pdf
  • Schwartz, Eric J. and Matt Williams. “Access to Orphan Works: Copyright Law, Preservation, and Politics.” Cinema Journal 46: 2 (Winter 2007): 139-145.
  • Tibbo, Helen R. Comments in Response to the Notice of Inquiry Concerning Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972. Society of American Archivists. 19 January 2011: 1-2. http://www.copyright.gov/docs/sound/comments/initial/20110124-Society-of-American-Archivists.pdf External
  • United States Copyright Office. From Basics to FAQ to Forms. http://www.copyright.gov/
  • U.S. Copyright Office. Report on Orphan Works: A Report of the Register of Copyrights. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2006. http://www.copyright.gov/orphan/orphan-report.pdf
  • U.S. Copyright Office. Federal Copyright Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings: A Report of the Register of Copyrights. Washington, DC: US Copyright Office, December 2011. http://www.copyright.gov/docs/sound/pre-72-report.pdf
  • U.S. Copyright Office. Best Edition of Published Copyrighted Works for the Collections of the Library of Congress, Circular 7B (Reviewed 09/2012). Washington, DC: US Copyright Office, 2012. http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ07b.pdf
  • U.S. Copyright Office and the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program of the Library of Congress. The Section 108 Study Group Report. Washington, DC: US Copyright Office, 2008. www.section108.gov.docs/Sec108StudyGroupReport.pdf External
  • University of Texas. "Crash Course in Copyright." http://copyright.lib.utexas.edu External.
    • The University of Texas developed a crash course that outlines and helps to steer the reader through tough copyright dilemmas. This interactive site addresses fair use copyright management and licensing.
  • Vaidhyanathan, Siva. Copyrights and Copywrongs: The Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens Creativity. New York: NYU Press, 2001, pp. 81-148.

History of Recording

  • Brooks, Tim. Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of The Recording Industry, 1890-1919. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
  • Chanan, Michael. Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and Its Effects on Music. New York: Verso, 1995.
  • Day, Timothy. A Century of Recorded Music: Listening to Musical History. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Daniel, Eric D., C. Denis Mee, and Mark H. Clark, eds. Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years. New York: IEEE Press, 1999.
  • Doyle, Peter. Echo and Reverb: Fabricating Space in Popular Music Recording, 1900-1960. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2005.
  • Eisenberg, Evan. The Recording Angel: Explorations in Phonography. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.
  • Feaster, Patrick. “A Compass of Extraordinary Range: The Forgotten Origins of Phonomanipulation.” ARSC Journal 42.2 (2011).
  • Feaster, Patrick, ed. “The Phonautographic Manuscripts of Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville.” (2010). http://www.firstsounds.org/publications/articles/Phonautographic-Manuscripts.pdf External
  • Frith, Simon, ed. Popular Music: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 2004.
  • Gronow, Pekka, and Ilpo Saunio. An International History of the Recording Industry. London: Cassell, 1998.
  • Katz, Marc. Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
  • Kenney, William Howland. Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    • A cultural history of recorded sound from the earliest years to the end of WWII. Aspects of recorded sound such as gender, race, economics and "hillbilly records" are explored.
    ,/
  • McKnight, Jay, and Jeffrey McKnight. “Some Popular Misconceptions About Magnetic Recording History and Theory: A Historical Talk for the 2012 SF AES Convention.” San Fransisco, CA. 26 October 2012. http://www.aes.org/aeshc/pdf/mcknight_some-popular-misconceptions.pdf External
  • Millard, Andre. America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Milner, Greg. Perfecting Sound Forever: An Aural History of Recorded Music. New York: Faber and Faber, Inc., 2009.
  • Morton, David. Off the Record: The Technology and Culture of Sound Recording in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000.
  • Morton, David. Sound Recording: The Life Story of a Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004
  • Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G. “Clockwork Music; an Illustrated History of Mechanical Musical Instruments from the Musical Box to the Pianola, from Automation Lady Virgininal Players to Orchestrion.” New York: Crown, 1973.
  • Read, O., and W. L. Welch. From Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph. Indianapolis: Howard W. Sams & Co., 1959.
  • Steffen, David J. From Edison to Marconi: The First Thirty Years of Recorded Music. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005.
  • Sterne, Jonathan. The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.
  • Symes, Colin. Setting the Record Straight: A Material History of Classical Recording. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

Storage of Digital files - Digital Libraries

  • Bijsterveld, Karin, and Jose Van Dijck. Sound Souvenirs: Audio Technologies Memory and Cultural Practices. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009.
  • Bradley, Kevin, Junran, Lei, and Chris Blackall. Towards an Open Source Repository and Preservation System: Recommendations on the Implementation of an Open Source Digital Archival and Preservation System and on Related Software Development. Paris, UNESCO, 2007.
  • Dunn, Jon W., and Constance A. Mayer. "Variations: A Digital Music Library System at Indiana University." Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, Berkeley, 1999.
  • Lazinger, Susan S. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
  • Library of Congress. Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, April 2002. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub106abst.html External.
  • Murray, Annie, and Jared Wiercinski. “Looking at Archival Sound: Enhancing the Listening Experience in a Spoken Word Archive.” First Monday 17: 4 (April 2, 2012). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3808/3197 External
  • Music Encoding Initiative (website) http://music-encoding.org/home External
  • Norris, Sarah. “Effects of Desiccation on Degraded Binder Extraction in Magnetic Tape.” ARSC Journal 41: 2 (Fall 2010).
  • Pavuza, Franz, Andreas Rauber, Carl Rauch, and Stephan Strodl. "Evaluating Preservation Strategies for Audio and Video Files." Proceedings of the DELOS Workshop on Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services, Heraklion, Greece, May 11-13, 2005.
    • The authors created a decision support workflow for the long term preservation of digital AV files. The authors focused on "the elicitation of requirements, resulting in a total of about 350 criteria and the evaluation of different input formats for long-term preservation."
  • Spence, John. "Dams & Digitization Preparedness." Proceedings of the IASA Conference, Aahus, Denmark, 2002.
    • Because thousands of hours of recorded sound are digitized each year, digital asset management systems are a crucial part of every sound archive. Spence explains the need for and process and attributes of sound archives.

Best Practices, Manuals and Standards

Current Research

  • Fadeyev, Vitaliy, and Carl Haber. "Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing." Journal of the American Engineering Society (Vo. 51, No. 12), December 2003.
  • Nascé, A.J., J.W. McBride, M. Hill, and P.J. Boltryk. "Signal Processing Methods for the Recovery of Audio From Early Acoustic Cylinder Recordings, Measured via Non-Contact Optical Sensor." Paper presented at AES 31st International Conference, London, June 25-27, 2007. http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=13972 External.
    • Non-contact optical methods to reproduce audio from early or damaged sound carriers is explained as a means for sound archives to obtain a digital copy of recordings. Surface mapping for audio extraction will provide a method for future researchers to hear the sounds of the past.
  • Wilkinson, Alec. “A Voice from the Past.” The New Yorker 19 May 2014. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/05/19/a-voice-from-the-past External

Disaster Recovery

  • Brothers, Peter. Disaster Avoidance and Recovery of Magnetic Tapes Key Findings From a 20-Year Study. Proceedings from JTS (Joint Technical Symposium) 2004 Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage: Transition and Access, Toronto, Canada, 2004.
  • University of Michigan, the Library of Congress, et.al. "Disaster Preparedness." http://matrix.msu.edu/%7Edisaster/ External.

Audio Organizations and Archives

Standards

Journals and Newsletters

Audio preservation websites

Current Projects

Other Helpful Websites

 Back to top